This weekend I am focusing on tightening up Chapter 3: Methods. One of the challenges with doing exploratory qualitative research that uses emergent themes to develop contextual theories is that you don't want to skew the coding or interpretation of data using already existing frameworks. However you also want to ground the perspective in theories that are grounded, researched, or at least familiar with future audiences.
This is how I describe my using three versions of a similar approach to understanding technology integration or adoption:
The coding indicators, both emergent and specific in this research, derived from several general research bases. Orr and Mrazek (2008) shared a simplified table (see Table 3.2) describing The Levels of Use of the Innovation (Hall, Loucks, Rutherford, & Newlove, 1975; Loucks, 1977). These levels form a continuum on which an aspect of teaching can be matched with an indicator for where one is on the integration spectrum.
It is amazing that Susan Louck's framework, developed almost 40 years ago, still has complete relevance today. If you have access to academic journals, look for some of Loucks' and her colleague's work on this area. It is really amazing and they go much deeper into each described level. It is easy to see how this work has influenced both Prensky and Puentudera.
I used Final Cut Pro X to remix the TEDx edit of my talk: About Assessment. I wanted to have the slides and changes match up a little more closely to what was said and seen in the live audience. Enjoy!
Original video is here http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MDZ8sjCufDs
This week I am participating in a retreat called the 'Integrated Ethics Institute' and our topic is the "Habit of 'Happiness.'" I am working through some ideas about how to help my 5th grade math students next year break previously held conceptions of homework and find meaning in engaging in mathematical thinking outside of the classroom. The first image below is a brainstorm I did in MindNode Lite, and the second image is an arrangement of those ideas in Easel.ly.
Nabeel Ahmad (@nabeeloo) and Dominic Mentor provided tremendous help and guidance for me in pulling current literature on an emerging paradigm - mobile learning theory. They taught the first ever United States graduate school course about mobile phone learning at Teachers College about 5 years ago and it continues to be one of the toughest classes to get into. Below are some of the paragraphs from the Literature Review (Chapter 2) section on Mobile Screencasting, specifically looking at the idea of mobility and mobile learning.
Mobile Learning Theory
A theory of mobile learning is essential when thinking of the role of mobility and communication in learning environments. (Sharples, Taylor, & Vavoula, 2005). In mobile learning, students learn across both space and time and move from topic to topic. Like a blended environment, learners move in and out of engagement with technology. A key point in mobile learning theory is that it is the learner that is mobile, not the technology (Shuler, 2009). As devices are ubiquitous, learning can be interwoven with activities part of everyday life. Control of mobile learning environments can be distributed, and context is constructed by learners through their interaction with devices and with each other. They acknowledge that mobile learning can both complement and conflict with format education, and it raises ethical issues both of privacy and ownership.
A broad literature review of mobile technologies and learning stated that a challenge for both educators and designers is one of knowing how to use mobile tools in the most meaningful way (Naismith, Lonsdale, Vavoula, & Sharples, 2004). The authors suggested that a blended learning approach is necessary when using mobile technologies in learning settings. That is, all instructional and learning activities do not necessarily need to be done using mobile phones, but rather those types of activities must be balanced out with other instructional and learning strategies. As mobile technologies are becoming more ubiquitous, the greatest challenge will be to “discover how to use mobile technologies to transform learning into a seamless part of daily life to the point where it is not recognized as learning at all” (p. 5).
Dede identified four areas where scholars, practitioners, vendors, and policy makers converge in discussions, implementation, and support of educational technologies: devices and infrastructure, safety and privacy, digital assets and assessments, and human capital (Dede & Bjerede, 2011). Dede proposed alternative models of educational improvement that can be supported by mobile technologies. He described evolutionary change as how mobile dev ices are used within and outside classroom s to enable a 1:1 ubiquitous-computing environment. Revolutionary change focuses on mobile broadband beyond used to expand human support beyond the classroom and school day, and thus invent new structures for formal education. Disruptive change involves mobile devices being part of a strategy for eliminating inflexible, traditional methods of education.
Shuler (2009) identified key opportunities in mobile learning such as the promotion of anytime, anywhere learning, the ability to reach under served children (low cost, high accessibility), the ability to improve 21st century social interaction, the flexibility to fit into diverse learning environments and the ability to enable a personalized learning experience. She also identified challenges, contesting that there is no established mobile theory of learning, and that there is a divide in what parents and teachers see and what experts see. Most notably, she stated that poor design often affects usability. She described touch screen interfaces as the “21st century” button (in addition to gestural inputs), and mobile devices and systems have become much more consistent across manufacturer and operating system. Shuler states that there are five primary goals for mobile learning. It is important to invest in understanding the development of kids who grow up in a mobile world. It is necessary to develop educational interventions that are scalable, and most importantly build tools where educators can develop. Teacher preparation is key in a mobile world, and leadership must be present in a school setting in order for mobile learning to succeed. A quantitative study by Pierce and Ball (2009) explored teacher perceptions and how those perceptions may serve as either a barrier or an enabler to their intention to integrate technology into their teaching. Students in secondary schools in Australia used mobile devices for graphing calculators as well as algebra and geometry programs. They found that some teachers tended to see students’ use of the devices as being separate from their regular course time, though many teachers responded positively to the statement that technology can be used to engage students more real world problems.
New forms of digital media are beginning to influence children and their families. Three case studies on the deployment of smart mobile devices and applications revealed some key findings for educators (Chong & Shuler, 2010). Many families engage in a pass-back phenomenon, where an adult’s mobile device is given to a young child to temporarily interact with and be entertained. It was reported that while kids claimed to only play games, parents believed that children did a variety of activities on mobile devices beyond games. The children in the studies particularly liked the iPhone and iPod touch devices because of the touch screen and direct manipulation (Chan & Black, 2006), and overall children were able to use the devices without any guidance from their parents. Chong and Shuler (2010) stated that parents play an important role in shaping children’s experiences with mobile devices, and this role extends to teachers and schools as more mobile devices are integrated into school settings. The researchers concluded that mobile devices can be used to supplement learning experiences, but ultimately all the choices must be made towards always surrounding children with high quality educational resources.
Key trends in emerging technologies will have impact over the next several years (New Media Consortium, 2011). There exists an abundance of resources and relationships that are made easily accessibly through the Internet. An environment of anytime, anywhere learning and collaboration across decentralized information structures has been created through emerging technologies (Project Tomorrow, 2010). The report identified challenges and constraints with the same technologies. With increased use and exposure to tools and new media, digital media literacy becomes increasingly important in every academic and professional arena. The existing measures of assessment and measurement are not caught up with the technologies, leading to new forms of publishing and authorship. In the near term, e-books and mobile devices will be far more prevalent in schools. In a few years, augmented reality and game based learning would be more present. In the long term, both gesture based computing devices (movement and touch) as well as an abundance of data would help steer educational technology decision and policy.
Ling (2004) stated that mobile devices have social consequences, particularly in private settings. A phone can be used to provide safety (through immediacy of connection) coordinating activities, and providing accessibility while being shielded from the private sphere. He suggested that teens adoption of texting has changed the nature of mobile communication. Technical determinism is where technologies form and mold a society, where social determinism has technology continually being reinterpreted by users within that society. Gunawardena and colleagues (2009) defined social networking as the practice of expanding knowledge by making connections with people with similar interests
In 2008, Franklin and Peng conducted a case study to determine if students’ production and sharing of math movies could be a useful formal and informal learning tool. Unlike the previously described studies, they included an examination of how teachers felt about the students’ engaging in this type of learning. The researchers observed two math classes at Midwestern middle school in the United States that were taught by separate teachers Students used iPod Touch devices to view and share tutorial movies they had created using multimedia creation software such as Microsoft PowerPoint, Apple iMovie, and Adobe Photoshop. Each student was loaned an iPod touch device and they shared their production in and out of the classroom (Franklin & Peng, 2008). Using observations, interviews, and data analyses, the researchers concluded that the use of the movies and devices had great potential as a learning tool for middle school math algebra students. They suggested that the eighth grade algebra students who participated in the study had successfully complemented their understanding of algebra by building math movies and sharing them on handheld devices. While some teachers found the devices disruptive, most teachers did not deny that the students were engaged and that the iPod Touch devices were worth exploring (Franklin & Peng, 2008). This study provides interesting qualitative insight into emerging technologies used with middle school students, but it does not directly address how this particular tool fits in with or supports the teachers’ broad understanding of education. Rather, the focus is more on student views, student outcomes, and understanding of the logistics necessary for successful use of the handheld devices.
I'm writing/revising my dissertation chapters this summer in advance of what I hope will be an October or November defense. I'm also trying to knock out a couple of journal articles simultaneously by appropriating and modifying portions from the original dissertation text. Part of my Literature Review (Chapter 2) focuses on Design Based Research methodology, an approach which I borrow elements from in my own research design. Considering that only my dissertation committee will probably read this, I figured it might be something worthwhile to put out there for others to see.
Overview of DBR
Stating that educational research can often be separated from the actual challenges faced in teaching and learning settings, the Design-Based Research Collective (2003) proposed that educational research should go beyond experimental testing of interventions. Design-based research has several distinguishing characteristics. First, learning environments and learning theories are connected and mutually dependent. Second, the development of environments and learning theories should be an iterative and cyclical process of design, implementation, analysis, and revision. Third, design research needs to lead to shareable contextualized theories. Fourth, all aspects of the design should take place in authentic settings and must be documented as thoroughly as possible. Finally, the methods used within the research design must connect the implementations to the outcomes of interest (i.e. research questions). The Design-Based Research Collective described an intention “in design-based research for using methods that link processes of enactment to outcomes has power to generate knowledge that directly applies to educational practice” (p.8). DBR has been defined not as an approach but rather a collection of approaches (Barab & Squire, 2004; Barab & Landa, 1997) that are explored, tested, refined, and balanced in authentic settings (Wiggins & McTighe, 1998). Barab and Kirshner (2001) suggested that as complexity of learning environments increases, so do the possibilities for learning that it engenders. Design-based research recognizes this complexity while providing a framework for negotiating it. These characteristics serve as the foundation for the research design of this dissertation.
DBR originated from the ideas of Alan Collins and Ann Brown (Cook, Means, Haertel, & Michalchik, 2003). In 1990, Alan Collins and his research group aimed to rethink how research on emerging technologies was carried out in educational settings. Their focus was to create a methodology for carrying out design experiments and create environments that allow new technologies to be integrated effectively. They highlighted a problem with contemporary research models, describing experimental designs as typically being carried out by designers who had great incentives for seeing the technology succeed (Collins, 1990; Dede, 2004; Collins, Joseph, & Bielacyzc, 2004). The proposed methodology called for the following elements: teachers as co-investigators, comparison of multiple innovations, objective evaluation, first using technologies that are likely to succeed in school settings, design expertise, variation within sites, flexible design revision, and multiple evaluation of either success or failure. Collins and his team (1990) proposed a unit that integrated a computer and video program available at the time, The Voyage of the Mimi, and then used several other computer applications for collecting and organizing data. To evaluate the design experiment, they suggested using interviews, observations, and the collection of artifacts including paper and pencil tests and teacher daily notes. They recognized that the study itself took place in one small classroom. The model for investigating the design was repeatable and through iterations could build a cumulative understanding of optimal design. The Collins methodology has been a blueprint for numerous design-based research studies (see Boling, 2008; Bower, 2011; Mortenson, 2011).
Brown (1992) described her transition from a laboratory scientist to a design scientist as she embarked on a quest to change the nature of schools from being environments of control and management to active learning communities. Her interests shifted from cognitive sciences on a theoretical level to instructional design on a practical level. Citing her own investigations into reciprocal teaching as an instructional approach (Brown & Palinscar, 1982) she stated that the applied value of her research was much more transparent when considering cognition, content, and context. Situated learning (Lave and Wegner, 1991) can only be examined with all of the relevant contexts considered over time (Barab, Hay, & Yamagata-Lynch, 2001). While it is important to isolate variables and conduct experimental studies that shed light on reasons that certain things succeed or fail in educational settings, Brown (1992) recognized consideration of all of the contextual, content-oriented, and cognitive elements need to be explored in order to link theory to practice.
There are certainly limits and challenges associated with design-based research. Causality (Lesgold, 2003) is difficult to interpret when dealing with complex or messy settings over sustained periods of time (Design-Based Research Collective, 2003; Collins, 1997; Collins, Joseph, & Bielaczyc, 2004). This leads to questions of validity from the larger educational research community. Any findings (i.e. knowledge) must be explicitly defined as being contextualized theories of learning, instruction, and integration.
Design-based research has been subject to criticism in scholarly settings, many of which come from traditions of scientific and experimental inquiry in teaching and learning. Dede (2004) described DBR as investigating a lot of variables without looking at any one thing particularly well. While being optimistic about the potential of DBR, he was realistic about the simple fact that the type of results that DBR was producing was not was policy makers or practitioners were interested in at the time. Dede called for explicitness of both ontological and epistemological beliefs of those conducting DBR as well as intention by publishers of DBR to encourage readers to have a critical eye and understand the limits of any results or theories that emerge.
A recent meta-study by Anderson and Shattuck (2012) examined the current trends in design-based research. The found that 75% of DBR-related published studies were coming from the US, particularly in K-12 settings. One interesting finding was that many of the publications focused on iterations of ongoing studies (see Hakkarainen, 2007), with only one study actually being completed. In the approximately 10 years that since DBR has emerged on the educational research landscape, it is still not transformative (McKenney & Reeves, 2013). However, they conclude that recent DBR studies have at least provided evidence that it is a valid approach for examining complex learning environments (Dede, Ketelhut, Whitehouse, Breit, & McClosky, 2009). The next sections looks at a few recent DBR publications that have come out in the last 10 years from places included the United States, Australia, and Denmark.
Selected Design-Based Research Studies
Hardre, Nanny, Refai, Ling, and Slater (2010) used design-based research methodology to follow 17 K-12 teachers during a resident learning experience and subsequent classroom planning and implementation. They chose DBR because of the characteristics described in the previous section of this literature review such as the ability to account for expected and unexpected events in complex, authentic environments. Their goal was to identify factors during the intervention that contribute to teacher engagement, on-site experience, and classroom practice. This research used iterations of varying data collection methods over the course of 50 weeks. The methods included questionnaires, mentor evaluations, mentor observations, and data artifacts such as proposal documents and project implementation reports. Their approach to data analysis depended on the types of data that was being examined in relation to the research question that they were trying to address. The researchers were explicit about stating that their findings were highly contextual, though they concluded more generally that authenticity is open to interpretation both by researchers and research subjects.
Also looking at teachers in training, Boling (2008) investigated how conceptions of new technologies in literacy education changed and impacted the curriculum of a graduate level course. The researcher uniquely included her personal evolving perceptions as part of the design and data. One core assumption of this study was that the integration of emerging technologies brings about new responsibilities for teachers in understanding the relationship between technology, pedagogy, and learning. Working with 19 graduate students enrolled in a course she was teaching, she digitally recorded and collected classroom conversations, records from one on one teacher-student meetings, and classroom artifacts included discussion forum and journal entries. Using a grounded theory approach, she developed a set of common themes that arose from the data gathered from participants. One of her main findings suggested that beliefs on the role of technology in literacy education were firm, and that a graduate level course may not have been a mechanism in order to alter those beliefs. Boling highlighted a challenge for instructors in education programs to make ontological and pedagogical beliefs public.
Distance learning environments are prevalent in Australia due to the way that people are spread out across the continent. A study by Bower (2011) used an iterative design-based research approach to examine learning and teaching in synchronous web-conferencing environments. During three iterations, he looked at the collaborative competencies of 26 college-aged students studying computer programming in Australia. The competencies he identified were operational, interactional, managerial, and design. He chose to use DBR because of its intention to study phenomena in authentic settings. In the first iteration of the study, he was only able to look at how students interacted with the basic tools in the web conferencing system. In the second iteration, he was able to document student-centered learning activities that required collaboration such as writing a computer program together. The third iteration was a refinement of the second iteration where he adjusted both the instructional design and used different aspects of the web-conferencing interface to leverage more collaborative opportunities. Throughout the research process his goal was to modify the instructional design, the use of technology, and augment the types of interactions that were documented in order to better address his research purposes. One limitation of this study is that Bower only used observations as evidence of collaborative competencies. While the results and suggested theories were interesting, the research tried to make general statements based on a highly contextual situation.
Mortenson (2011) explored the relationship of museum design and visitor interactions, particularly looking at how design choices affected the understanding outcomes for those experiencing a particular exhibit shown first at a science learning center in Denmark and later a science institute in Belgium. Using observations, interviews with participants, and the collection of audio digital artifacts, Mortenson uncovered a range of visitor experiences so broad that she was unable to generate contextual theories. She cited the messiness of the museum setting as making it difficult to examine the intended relationship and determine what factors may have led the exhibit to be successful (and for some visitors unsuccessful). This study is an example of how the documentation of what may be perceived by some as a failed research project is in fact quite helpful in presenting the contexts for what can be challenging in a DBR study. The benefit of DBR is that a researcher can learn from this iteration and apply changes in the research design in order to eventually address the original research purpose (Zeng & Blasi, 2010).
We just finished three days of faculty professional development at the school where I work. About 17 faculty members and 10 student leaders designed, planned, and facilitated a variety of workshops. The first two days focused on current research and how we apply it to our technology integration choices. The third day focused on giving the brain a break from the norm and trying out experiences that otherwise might not be available or accessible to participants. If you want to see descriptions of the sessions in which over 70 faculty members participated, scroll down.
I recently learned about Postach.io from @gregkulowiec and found that it provided a great way to quickly share artifacts during the workshop while also allowing me to add to my existing repository in Evernote.
You can view all of the shared artifacts here: http://reshanrichards.postach.io.
Feedback should be nuanced, layered, and developmentally appropriate. Come explore and create types of feedback that students can (and might actually) use. Examine tools such as Evernote, Word/Acrobat, TurnItIn, NoodleTools, and SoundCloud for providing timely and useful feedback.
LibGuides: It's Not Just for Research Projects
Thoughtful scaffolding for lessons, projects, and units can be incredibly powerful for the learning experience. Become familiar with and create LibGuides to unlock new affordances and opportunities that are different than other tools we have access to.
Organizing Student Media for Assessing the Big Picture
Students are creating more and more digital media (photos, movies, presentations) as representations of their understanding. How do we as teachers collect and organize these artifacts to be able to assess the big picture of where a class is in their collective learning? Explore approaches such as AirDrop, Email, Evernote, Dropbox, and more for making collection and organization more accessible, and access to collective student resources more meaningful and useful.
For MS and US iPad Pilot participants as well as all interested PS Faculty members.
Collaborating in the Cloud
We'll look at three levels of using Google services - Docs for collaborative writing and collection, Drive for file sharing, Hangouts for video conferencing - to promote collaboration among students, faculty, and leadership.
Lemmings or Detectives
Ever wish your students questioned more and readily accepted less? Explore a few easily-integrated strategies to create a questioning atmosphere in your classroom. We’ll use Padlet and commenting features in Adobe as a springboard for helping your students become positive skeptics and serial questioners.
Blended Learning: Promoting student mastery
How do you use technology tools to help students master material outside the classroom to free up time in the classroom? This session provides time to discuss and explore tools to help support this type of learning environment, and it draws connections to the Blended Learning session offered in the afternoon.
Blended Learning: Flipping the Classroom or Restructuring it?
The flipped classroom is all the rage these days. This workshop would be a forum for discussing how to best use the time in the classroom, if you're using a flipped model outside the classroom. What sort of things can/should students be doing that require physical proximity?
Making the Most of your Mac: Efficient Shortcuts for Your Computer
This session is for anyone who wants to become more comfortable with their keyboard and mouse through shortcuts to find ways to speed up their everyday computer use. Shortcuts range from the basic to the obvious: things like two finger scrolling to switching between apps to pulling up reminders with your trackpad.
Postach.io and Evernote
Learn how to use this tool to create a dynamic blog using only your Evernote account. This is the tool that was discussed during the morning opening.
Learn how to use this popular web based presentation tool that lets you create non linear presentations with sophisticated templates, tools, and navigation options. Prezi recently updated their editing interface, so this session provides people familiar with the tool time to explore the new version.
Creating Educational Media Using Adobe Photoshop CS6
The MacBook Airs have the newest version of the Adobe Suite. Learn how students can use Adobe Photoshop to create class-related media, such as an informational poster.
Skitch & Fluid
This session combines two very different apps. Skitch is an app that lets you annotate photos and documents with a simple interface that also can directly sync to your Evernote account. Fluid lets you take any website and turn it into an application with a custom icon and a clean and focused interface.
Google Apps: Basics and beyond
If you have a Google account (Gmail or one associated with another email address) you may not be aware of the amazing tools and features you have free access to. Explore Google Docs, Presentations, Google Drive, and more.
Learn how to efficiently scan papers with the copiers, archive documents in Evernote, combine PDFs with Acrobat, and create electronic forms from a PDF.
Haiku Deck & Class Dojo (for iPad)
Haiku Deck is a presentation tool for iPad with a simple interface and access to millions of creative commons licensed photos. THough Class Dojo bills itself as 'behavior management' software, the feature set can be used to create engaging opportunities.
Classtools.net - Fakebook, FakeTweet, FakeText
What would Shakespeare's Facebook page look like? If Caesar was tweeting, what would he say? Play with fun and dynamic templates for creating mock Facebook pages, Tweets, and Text Message conversations which many young people may relate to.
Apple TV, Airplay, and Wireless Projection
Learn how you and your students can wireless transmit audio and video from the Macbook Air laptops to the Apple TV in the classrooms. In addition to hands on practice, we'll also discuss the decision making factors for when to use the wired connection vs. when to use AirPlay.
Book Creator and Strip Designer (for iPad)
iPad Creation Tools
Evernote: The Basics
If it's been a while since you used Evernote or you would just like a refresher on how it works and can be used with students, this is the session for you.
Care and Feeding of Your Laptop
Back by popular demand, learn ways to optimize and maintain Mountain Lion for better day to day performance and a better overall experience.
Mountain Lion 101
Follow up to morning opening - Notifications, Messages, Apple ID, Gestures, and Features of the MacBook Air
Open Work Time
Use this supported time to explore an idea or play with a tool that you learned about today. Work individually or ge ta a group of colleagues together to plan a lesson or project.
3D Design and Printing
Sketch a simple 3-dimensional object, create a digital 3D rendering, and print it out on a 3D Printer.
Acting Games, Exercises, and Improvisation
Many of the exercises used by actors to warm up, to connect with scene partners and to hone their craft can also be easily applicable to other subject areas. In this session, we will play each game and do certain exercises and then discuss ways they can be shaped to work in other units of study. At the very least, all of what you will experience are great ways to get a class to 'change thinking gears', get their 'creative brains moving' , work well in a group project or just wake up!
DIY Healthy Eats
Hungry, but pressed for time? Worried about your carbon footprint in the kitchen? How can one prepare quick, healthy, more wholesome meals that don’t break the bank..and STILL taste delicious?
Feel the Pulse (for non-musicians)
Experience and refine the art of collaboration using the senses. Explore how music and time play together and how a pulse keeps music alive. We will use a variety of percussion instruments to experience how musicians communicate, assemble music and share it with others.
Feel the Pulse (for experienced - or former - instrumentalists)
Experience the fun and wonder of making music with others by remembering how musicians communicate, assemble music and share it with others. Create a common pulse, divide and expand it, create "color" combinations of sound.
The Jewels of Montclair: Nature Walk + Picnic
Take a 3 mile (mostly downhill) walk visiting 4 parks along the way. Enjoy a picnic lunch in Brookdale Park. If you like, participate in a nature scavenger hunt.
Learning to Code
We use computers every day, in school and out, but have you ever wondered how the sites and services you interact with actually are built? No programming or computer science experience is necessary for getting started in building your own simple interactive experiences.
MakeyMakey & Scratch 2.0
"MaKey MaKey is an invention kit for the 21st century. Turn everyday objects into touchpads and combine them with the internet. It's a simple Invention Kit for Beginners and Experts doing art, engineering, and everything in-between"
"With Scratch, you can program your own interactive stories, games, and animations"
In this session, participants will get a firsthand chance to explore the incredibly popular game/design environment of Minecraft. MinecraftEDU is a modified version of Minecraft created by a teacher in New York City.
How did we get from there (cave paintings) to here (Mac, Internet,Video, 3D Printing)? We will be using "found" and constructed/modified objects to make prints using inks, dyes and paints.
Here is a video of the TEDxNYED talk I did several weeks ago. I shared some thoughts about how the term assessment is being misused to represent grades and data, when it should be about guidance and support. I also talked about how design of educational technology should not be about controlling the learning experience, but instead about providing an open and flexible canvas for people to create and manipulate knowledge and ideas.
I think I was pretty ambitious with how things were staged on the slides because the editing doesn't always match what you see with what I am saying. It was an honor to be able to present on that stage with so many other terrific speakers.
Header photo by Robert S. Donovan